Criar forum gratis
Forum dedicado a professores de Ingles e profissionais ligados ao ensino da lingua Inglesa.
Assinar este forum via:
[RSS/Atom]     [E-mail]


De em 16/06/2005 13:48:46 a partir de
Louis-Antoine de Bougainville was born on 12 November 1729, the youngest of the three children of Pierre-Yves de Bougainville and Marie-Francoise d'Arboulin. It is thought that the family originally came from the Picardy region of France, north of Paris. A small village a few kilometres east of Amiens is called Bougainville. They lived at 21 Rue de la Barre du Bec (later called Rue du Temple) near the Chatelet where Bougainville's father was a notary. Their first child was Jean-Pierre. who was born in 1722 and he was followed in 1727 by the only daughter, Marie-Francois, named after her mother. Bougainville's mother died in 1734 when he was only five and the children's Aunt Charlotte, sister of their father came to look after them. Apparently Aunt Charlotte ran a strict household.
Among their neighbours was the Herault family who had a son, Jean-Baptiste, the same age as Louis-Antoine. Partly to avoid his Aunt and partly through the encouragement of Madame Herault, Louis-Antoine came to regard the Herault household as his home. He would address Madame Herault as chere maman in letters. The Heraults owned a house at Beaumont-sur-Oise, just north of Paris, and Bougainville, a keen and accomplished horseman was a regular visitor.
The school Bougainville attended was the College des Quatres-Nations on the south bank of the Seine opposite the Louvre. He later went on to the University of Paris. He was devoted to his elder brother, Jean-Pierre, who was a brilliant scholar and it was through him that he met many acclaimed and learned members of Paris Society. Among the family's neighbours were d'Alembert, the mathematician and Encyclopediste, and Clairaut, who helped develop Bougainville into a pre-eminent mathematician.He wrote mathematical treatises about calculus, which earned him membership of the British Royal Society.
In 1754, France and Britain were on the point of another war and Bougainville joined the Picardy militia (the Bougainvilles originally had come from Picardy). Soon, he was appointed aide-de-camp to General Chevert with the French army near Nancy but after one year he left the army and travelled to London to serve on the staff of the Marechal de Levis-Mirepoix, the French Ambassador. Bougainville formed several friendships in his time in London with people who would soon be on the opposite side in battle. It would prove another short posting as, in February 1755 he returned to the army and General Chevert.In 1756, Bougainville's father died. He had risen to become an Echevin or councillor of Paris.
1756-1760 Canada
The war broke out in Canada and Louis-Joseph de Montcalm was appointed to command the French army. Bougainville had been promoted to Captain and secured the position as aide-de-camp to Montcalm, They sailed from Brest on the "Licorne" in April, Bougainville's first real taste of sea travel, to land at Quebec. He soon went on via Fort Frontenac to take part in the successful assault on Fort Oswego, on the south side of Lake Ontario. Over the next two years he was present at several famous French victories, including those at Fort George and Fort Ticonderoga.
In November 1758, Bougainville was sent back to France to report on the state of the French colony and the war and to ask for reinforcements. Although he had been promoted to Colonel, he sailed back from France in March 1759 with only 300 extra troops. Within a few months the British troops under General Wolfe defetaed the French in the war's decisive battle at Quebec in September 1759. It was Bougainville who negotiated the exchange of prisoners and wounded.
Over the next year Bougainville tried to defend French forts on the River Richelieu but withdrew to Montreal, where on 7 September he acted for the French when they surrendered to General Amherst and the British. It was the end for the French in Canada and Bougainville returned to France as a prisoner.
1762-1765 Iles Malouines (Falkland Islands)
On his return to France, Bougainville was under parole and could not take active roles in any miltary activity. His parents were both now dead and he moved to live in the Rue Neuve-des-Bons-Enfants around the corner from his brother Jean-Pierre who was living nearby in the in the Rue du Croissant. The brothers visited their sister who had married Louis-Honorat de Baraudin at her home at Loches near Tours in the Loire Valley.
When he was free from his parole in 1762, Bougainville turned his attention to islands in the South Atlantic Ocean (known now in English as the Falkland Islands), for which he saw a strategic role in commanding the route to the Pacific round South America. He persuaded people to back his enterprise and in September 1763 he sailed with two ships and the first party of settlers to these islands. They arrived in February 1764 and made the first settlement at Port Louis. The settlers had come from the French port of St. Malo, hence the islands being known as the Malouines or Malvinas. Bougainville made a side trip to the Strait of Magellan to find wood for his settlement. Spain objected to the colony and in 1765, the French agreed to hand it over to the Spanish, which caused the abandonment of the settlement.
1766-1769 Round the world
December 1766
Bougainville was greatly disappointed that the French gave up the Iles Malouines but soon had had an idea for another project, an expedition around the world. The Duc du Choiseul, the Minister of Marine supported this new venture and Bougainville was given two ships and Government backing. Only one ship was ready so, on 5 December 1766, Bougainville set sail from Brest on the "Boudeuse" on a voyage that would last 28 months.
The first part of the voyage involved the handing over of the Iles Malouines to the Spanish so Bougainville sailed south to Montevideo and on to the islands to complete the formalities. He needed to make contact with his other ship, the "Etoile" and sailed north to find it at Rio de Janeiro. The "Etoile" under the command of La Giraudais had a botanist, Commerson, on board who described a plant found in Brazil and named it Bougainvillea after the expedition's leader. The two ships left Rio and sailed down to Motevideo where the ships were found to need repairs, which were carried out across the River Plate near Buenos Aires.
November 1767
They continued south to enter the Strait of Magellan in early December. They took seven weeks to negotiate the Strait, stopping at Baie de Bougainville (very close to the southernmost point on the South America mainland on the Peninsula de Brunswick) and Port Galant.
January-April 1768
Entering the Pacific the ships sailed northwest without seeing any trace of land until late March when they reached the first of the Tuamotu Archipelago. For the next two weeks they threaded their way past the atolls to reach the Island of Tahiti on April 6th. The ships anchored at Hitiaa on the east coast of Tahiti-nui. The stay was peaceful, friendly and only lasted 9 days. It had, however, tremendous repercussions as the descriptions of Tahitian life taken back to France were the basis of the concept of the Pacific Islanders being the "Noble Savage".
May 1768
The French sailed on westward and in early May they sighted the Samoan Islands (Bougainville called them Iles Navigateurs) but made no attempt to land and sailed to the south of the islands. After next sailing to the north of Fiji, Bougainville came to the islands he termed the Archipelago de Cyclades (present day Vanuatu). The Spanish explorer Quiros had been here 160 years earlier. Five days were given to a brief exploration of the central islands before sailing on (there is still a Bougainville Strait).
June-July 1768
On 4 June Bougainville was very close to the Australian Great Barrier Reef, just north of Cairns (there is still a Bougainville Reef), but turned north and six days later he approached the south coast of New Guinea. The reefs forced him east before he rounded Rossel Island and headed north once more. The ships called in briefly at the western end of Choiseul Island before sailing north past an island the crew named Bougainville Island after their leader. They needed fresh water and put into a harbour at the southern tip of New Ireland, where they rested for three weeks.
August 1768-March 1769
They had, to all extents and purposes, now crossed the Pacific and were keen to reach Batavia (Jakarta) and European contact. They skirted the north coast of New Guinea and the Moluccas to reach Batavia on 28 September. Three weeks later entered the Indian Ocean and headed for the Ile de France (Mauritius), where they arrived in early November. Several crew members disembarked here, including Commerson, before the ships left on 12 December. They were all keen to be home and, after a short stop at the Cape, they headed up the Atlantic to reach the port of St. Malo, in France, on 12 March 1769.
Bougainville wrote up his journal and it was published to general acclaim in 1771. The voyage, while it had discovered little new, was deemed a success in that it had returned intact and with a healthy crew. It had added to French prestige. The naturalists had discovered and described new plants and animals.
1778-1782 American War of Independence
After his great voyage Bougainville stayed in the French navy and from 1778 took part in actions during the American War of Independence, in which the French sided with the Americans against the British. In 1778 he was inlvolved around Boston before sailing south at the end of the year to the West Indies. Here, in July 1779, he took part in the capture of Grenada and the sea battle off that island. By August 1779 he was at Savannah and Charleston on the American coast and in December was back in France. Mid 1781 saw Bougainville back in American waters and he was praised for his actions during the Battle off Chesapeake Bay in the August. The French fleet then sailed back to the West Indies and was beaten at the Battle off the Iles des Saintes between Dominica and Guadeloupe. Bougainville would receive muchof the blame for the loss and he went into a semi-retirement.
1780-1789 Family life and semi-retirement
In Brittany on 27 November 1780, Bougainville married Flore-Josephe de Montendre from a Breton naval family and twenty years his junior. The marriage, performed by the Priest from the Manor of Botderu in Brittany, took place at Kerdreho in Brest. They would have four sons together. Hyacinthe, the eldest son and who would visit Australia was born in 1783. He was followed by Armand, born 1785, and Alphonse born 1788. In 1780 Bougainville himself was already over 50 years of age and, though still an active Naval Officer, he was ready for family life. Bougainville had already purchased a house at La Becquetiere very close to the Normandy coast at Anneville, near Coutances but it was to another house, La Brosse just a few kilometres southeast of Paris in the Val de Marne, that Bougainville soon moved the family. He was elected to the Academie des Sciences in February 1789.
1789-1793 French Revolution
Bougainville like all of France would become involved in the French Revolution. The French fleet mutinied in 1790 and Bougainville was appointed to restore order. On 30 November he took over in Brest and though he initially achieved some order he soon realised it was a hopeless cause and resigned in February 1791. Later that year he was offered the position of Minister of Marine by the King but declined. Bougainville was back in Paris and had a house at 56 Rue de Bouloi. He helped defend the King at the Tuileries in June 1792 and again in August. The Terror was beginning and, fearing for the lives of his family, Bougainville took them to their house in Normandy. Even here they were not safe and Bougainville was captured and imprisoned in Coutances. Bougainville arranged for his wife and children to escape but they were arrested in St. Malo. Before anything else could happen Robespierre fell and Bougainville was released.
1794-1811 Old age
Bougainville was elected in 1795 to be a member of the Longitudinal Bureau. Napoleon became a friend and recognised Bougainville's role in French history by making him a Comte, awarding him the Legion d"Honneur and a pension of 40,000francs.The family's fourth son, Adolphe, was born In 1799, the Bougainvilles moved from La Brosse a short distance to a new home at Suisnes in Brie but Louis-Antoine also spent time in Paris. Sadly their second son, Armand, drowned in the nearby River Yeres on 2 August 1802. Flore-Josephe was affected deeply by this loss and she never recovered fully before dying four years later on 7 August 1806. By this time Bougainville had moved back to live in Paris. He died on 31 August 1811, one of only a few explorers to survive to old age and die at home. Bougainville was buried in the Pantheon though his heart was removed and placed with Flore-Josephe and Armand at St. Pierre in Montmartre

Em resposta a:

Tradução (ariane - 17/09/2004 14:12:02)
A day in the life of a DJ Barry walker is from the USA.He lives in ST. Peterssurg in the state of Florida. He is a disc Jockey on the radio. He does the music program. He goes to Work at 11:30 p.m. He workes from mednight to 7 o clock in the morning. He gits home around 7:45 a.m. Then he has o glass...(ver)

Responder a esta mensagem

A prática, indução ou incitação de discriminação ou preconceito de raça, cor, etnia, religião ou procedência nacional, por meio da Internet, bem como a humilhação e exposição pública caluniosa e difamatória, constituem crimes punidos pela legislação brasileira. Denuncie aqui sites e/ou mensagens de fóruns hospedados na Insite contendo qualquer violação.
Seu nome:
Seu e-mail:
  Quero receber notificação por email se minha mensagem for respondida.
Não quero que meu e-mail apareça na mensagem (apenas o nome)

| Hospedagem de Sites | Acesso Banda Larga | On Google Plus
Tecnologia Insite   -   Soluções Internet   -   ©   2019 -